a. The ground isn’t only warm where you can see the lava at the surface. Kilometers from any visible lava, EPS students could feel its warmth beneath the surface at the Puhimau Thermal Area.
b. 360 Video: 44; 360 Photo: 45—Puhimau Thermal Area This area barren of large vegetation was first noted in 1938 and is slowly getting larger. Soil temperatures in the area are around 80°C (180°F), while surrounding areas have soil temperatures around 19°C (67°F). The hot temperatures kill most vegetation and prevent most species from growing. The high temperatures are most likely due to a magma body a few hundred meters below the surface that may be partially molten. The area has more than doubled in size since the 1960s, possibly due to a shallow stream of magma into the east rift zone of Kilauea volcano. More info: http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/gallery/kilauea/erz/puhimau.html http://hvo.wr.usgs.gov/volcanowatch/archive/2003/03_02_06.html
|Figures 1-2: EPS students Rachel Hampton and Abba Parker record ground temperatures at the Puhimau Geothermal Area.|
Figure 3: Students use thermometers to measure soil temperatures at different depths in a geothermal area, where the vegetation has been killed by the heat.